Enheduanna (-2300 av JC) 

Probably the most ancient literary author. Daughter of Sargon of Akkad, her father conquers Ur and names Enheduanna priestess of the prosperous Sumerian capital in Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq). An uprising drives her out and inspires the writing of “Temple Hymns”. This is an exceptional text: the oldest text whose author is known, and it’s a woman!